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Acta Tabacaria Sinica
ZHONGGUO YANCAO XUEBAO
Bimonthly
Inaugurated in 1992

Superintended by:
China Association for Science and Technology
Sponsored by:
Chinese Tobacco Society
Editor-in-Chief: YUAN Xingsi
Deputy Editor-in-Chief:
Editors: HA Junli, LIU Xinhua,
             AI Jitao, ZHANG Zheng
English Proofread by:
ZHAO Baidong, XIAO Boxue
Published by:
Editorial Office of Acta Tabacaria Sinica
Address: No.55 Yuetan South Street, Xicheng District, Beijing
Post Code: 100045
Tel: (86-10)63605768, 63605021, 63606237, 63605769, 63606007
Fax: (86-10)63605760
Email: xh-bj@tobacco.gov.cn
ISSN 1004-5708
CN 11-2985/TS

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Study of the dose-effect relationship on the important precursors of hydrogen cyanide in cigarette smoke
ACTA TABACARIA SINICA    2014, 20 (5): 1-5.  
Abstract   PDF (1639KB)  

In order to confirm the origin of hydrocyanic acid,the precursors of hydrocyanic acid in cigarette smoke was studied by a home-made smoking simulator of rapid heating. The dose-effect relationship between the yield of HCN and the quantity of precursors was determined. The results showed that the important precursors were protein, proline and asparagine amide,the contribution to HCN in cigarette smoke was respectively 85.13%,3.55% and 1.59%. The relation between the yield of HCN and the quantity of precursors was a linear correlation,and the release of HCN increased with increasing the content of precursors.

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Cited: Baidu(1)
The application of low-field NMR in the moisture determination in cut-tobacco
ACTA TABACARIA SINICA    2014, 20 (5): 6-11.  
Abstract   PDF (2431KB)  

This paper presents a novel method for detecting the moisture content on the basis of free induction decay (FID) signals by using a low-field NMR instrument. Cut-tobacco material was taken as a model in the present study, and calibration models were developed with full consideration of tobacco oil. The method was validated by measuring the moisture content in cut-tobacco samples, and then comparing the results obtained by the NMR method and the drying method. The NMR method showed good repeatability, accuracy and stability in this study. Hopefully the presented method will contribute to the moisture determination in tobacco industry and other industrial fields.

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Cited: Baidu(1)
Comparative Research of the Leaf Trichome Development and Exudates of Tobacco Growing in Typical Ecological Regions
ACTA TABACARIA SINICA    2014, 20 (5): 38-42.  
Abstract   PDF (2382KB)  

To identify the effects of ecological environment on leaf trichomes of tobacco, the same tobacco variety (Nicotiana tabacum L, K326) was choosed to plant in three typical ecological regions, Pingdingshan of Henan province, Jiangchuan of Yunnan province, and Zunyi of Guizhou province in China, respectively. Trichomes morphology, excretion on leaf surface and gene expression were analyzed during leaf development process. Although no obvious changes were discovered in trichome types, the trichome density varied greatly among the three regions. Tobacco growing in Guizhou Zunyi proved to have the highest leaf trichomes density. CBT-ol and CBT-diol, the main components of trichome secretion, accumulated much more in tobacco leaf surface growing in Henan area. The expression of CYC-1 and CYP71D16, the genes related to trichome secretion biosynthesis, displayed the same tendency with the content of CBT-diol. This result suggests that the development of leaf trichomes were greatly influenced by ecological environment. Conversely, the characterics of tobacco were effected by the chemical composition of tobacco leaves.

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Cited: Baidu(3)
Research on microRNAs expression profiles in flue-cured tobacco leaves before and after topping
ACTA TABACARIA SINICA    2014, 20 (5): 110-115.  
Abstract   PDF (1686KB)  

Expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) profiles in two sRNA libraries which come from flue-cured tobacco leaves before and after topping were shown by Solexa sequencing technology. Totally 4,223,982 and 4,993,588 unique sRNA sequence reads were obtained in before and after topping leaves libraries. The matched miRNAs in before and after leave samples were 347 and 337 in which 83 and 71 were annotated sequences, respectively. Seven miRNAs were identified to be differentially expressed ones between leaves before and after topping. Compared with the expression profiles in before topping samples MiR-157 and MiR-156 were expressed at a relative high level while MiR-395,MiR-159c,MiR-159a,MiR-394 and MiR-399 were shown to be lower expressed. Three new miRNA sequence were predicted in which Nta-miRNA*-001 and Nta-miRNA*-002 were exist in the leave sample before topping and Nta-miRNA*-003 was exist in the after topping sample. The differentially expressed miRNAs indicated that topping can regulate the leaf vegetative growth and resistance ability.

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Path analysis on transnational merger & acquisition of China tobacco industry
ACTA TABACARIA SINICA    2014, 20 (5): 121-127.  
Abstract   PDF (1626KB)  

After over 30 years’ development, China tobacco has gained huge achievements. But we can see that global tobacco market has been monopolized by those large international companies. China tobacco enterprises only have 1.7 percent of the international cigarette market share outside China. As the more serious situation of tobacco control, continuous growth of market concentration and huge pressure from international competition, the “going global” strategy become an important reform measure for China tobacco’s future. Transnational merger and acquisition, as one of the main method of “going global” strategy, is of great significance to develop our brand and grow our market share. The article tries to analyze the international market situation, risk management and feasibility of transnational merger & acquisition of China tobacco industry, so as to present the author’s consideration on future target market, paths and national legal supervision.

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Multivariate Statistical Analysis Methods and Their Application in Tobacco Science
ACTA TABACARIA SINICA    2014, 20 (5): 134-140.  
Abstract   PDF (1368KB)  

The paper was intended to open a multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) window where researchers, practitioners and managers capture some systemic pictures of MSA from a view of comprehensibility. Importance, essentiality and feasibility were analyzed of MSA application to tobacco science. Five MSA methods and their applications in applied botany including tobacco were introduced in a concise way, plus advances in the methods. Namely, (1) graphs and visualization of multivariate data; (2) principle component analysis for dimension reduction; (3) cluster analysis for classification and categorization; (4) discrimination analysis for identification and diagnosis; (5) canonical correlation analysis for interdepedence and depedence between 2 sets of variables. Three additional traditional MSA methods of canonical variate analysis, multivariate variance analysis and correspondence analysis were listed by means of one sentence summary of their functions. New MSA methods were also mentioned of geo-statistics, support vector machine, projection pursuit, classification and regression trees, partial least square and structural equation modeling. Bootstrap resampling techneque was strongly recommended to use together with MSA in order to enhence the reliability of results.

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Cited: Baidu(2)
Analysis of mainstream smoke particulate matters using electronic nose
ACTA TABACARIA SINICA    2014, 20 (3): 1-8.  
Abstract   PDF (2789KB)  

Abstract: The method of analyzing particulate matter in mainstream cigarette by electronic nose was developed. Firstly, the conditions such as smoking regime, storage time of particulate matters, delay time and injection volume were optimized. Then, the temperature and time of headspace heating were also optimized by single factor analysis. The results were shown as follows: the cigarettes were smoked according to puff number; The storage time was controlled with 12 hours; The delay time was 1800s; The injection volume was 100μL; The temperature and time of headspace heating were 90℃ and 20min respectively. Based on the study of the method, the classifying model of different style cigarettes and the statistical quality control model of same brand cigarettes were established. Moreover the reliability of these models was validated. The results showed that the model of classifying model was valid, and differentiating precision was up to 95%. The quality control model established could be used to test the quality of cigarettes monthly. Moreover, this model had very high practical value in the cigarette maintenance.

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Study on NaOH/urea dissolving method for determining lignin content in the tobacco stems in low temperature
ACTA TABACARIA SINICA    2014, 20 (3): 9-15.  
Abstract   PDF (1482KB)  

A novel method to determine the lignin content in the tobacco stems was developed in this paper. The method to determine acid-insoluble lignin is based on the NaOH/urea aqueous solution’s strong ability to dissolve natural polymer at low temperature, such as cellulose, hemicellulose, etc., followed by breaking the bonds between lignin and cellulose/hemicellulose with dilute acid treatment. The optimum conditions for acid treatment was carried out at 100℃ for 30 min with sulfuric acid of 17.5% and liquid-to-solid of 80mL/g. UV absorbance in 325nm was selected to quantify the content of acid-soluble lignin, aiming at avoiding the interference of protein, etc. The content of sugar in acid-insoluble lignin is less 2% and the relative standard deviation for lignin determination is below 2%, which indicate that this method is provided with good accuracy and precision. Moreover, it reduces the organic solvent and concentrated sulfuric acid pretreatment and improves the security of the test.

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Cited: Baidu(1)
Screening of Leave Protein Marker during the Transformation from Vegetative Grown Stage to the Reproductive Stage of Flue-Cured Tobacco
ACTA TABACARIA SINICA    2014, 20 (3): 89-85.  
Abstract   PDF (1906KB)  

Comparative leave protein expression profiles during the transformation from vegetative grown stage to reproductive grown stage of flue-cured tobacco through 2-D electrophoresis identified 8 differentially expressed leave protein markers. Among them 6 proteins related to the photo-respiratory, protein synthesis and cell development which are chloroplast oxygen-evolving complex/thylakoid luminal 25.6kDa protein, SHM1 (Serine transhydroxymethyltransferase 1), 60S ribosomal protein and 30S ribosomal protein, GST (glutathione S-transferase) and XET (xyloglucan endotransglycosylase) were shown to be highly expressed in vegetative grown leaves. Ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase large subunit and small subunit ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase which are key enzymes related to the carbon fixation were found to have a relative high expression level in the reproductive grown leaves. The main differentially expressed proteins between these two stages in tobacco leaves showed that during the transformation from vegetative grown stage to reproductive grown stage the photo-respiratory, protein synthesis and anti-oxidation physiology functions decreased while the carbon fixation ability are strengthened through the regulation of the expression of related proteins.

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Preliminary study on tobacco enterprises citizenship construction
ACTA TABACARIA SINICA    2014, 20 (3): 108-112.  
Abstract   PDF (1376KB)  

Based on existing theory and practices, the necessity and urgency to accelerate the citizenship construction of toboacco enterprises are analysed. With the summary on enterprise citizenship concepts, and combining the common characters of corporate social responsibility as well as the speciality of tobacco enterprise, the reasons why “enterprise citizenship” is superior than “enterprise social responsibility” are demonstrates. Then the connotation of tobacco enterprises citizenship is analysed. Finally, some suggestions on accelerating the construction of tobacco enterprise citizenship are concluded, so as to provide some reference and reflection for future construction.

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