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Acta Tabacaria Sinica
ZHONGGUO YANCAO XUEBAO
Bimonthly
Inaugurated in 1992

Superintended by:
China Association for Science and Technology
Sponsored by:
Chinese Tobacco Society
Editor-in-Chief: YUAN Xingsi
Deputy Editor-in-Chief:
Editors: HA Junli, LIU Xinhua,
             AI Jitao, ZHANG Zheng
English Proofread by:
ZHAO Baidong, XIAO Boxue
Published by:
Editorial Office of Acta Tabacaria Sinica
Address: No.55 Yuetan South Street, Xicheng District, Beijing
Post Code: 100045
Tel: (86-10)63605768, 63605021, 63606237, 63605769, 63606007
Fax: (86-10)63605760
Email: xh-bj@tobacco.gov.cn
ISSN 1004-5708
CN 11-2985/TS

  Editor’s Pick More>>   
Current Issue Full Abstracts Archive
2020  Vol. 26 No. 4    Published: 28 August 2020
CIGAR COLUMN    TOBACCO AND SMOKE CHEMISTRY    TOBACCO EQUIPMENT    AGRONOMY AND CURING    ECONOMY AND MANAGEMENT    REVIEW   
 CIGAR COLUMN
ZHANG Qianying, LUO Cheng, LI Dongliang, CAI Wen
Research progress in curing and fermentation technology for cigar tobacco leaf production
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 1-6 [Abstract] ( 19 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (859 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 58 ) | Cite this article
WANG Jinbang, QIU Jiqing, ZHENG Lu, WANG Zhibo, HONG Qunye, ZHANG Shihua, ZHENG Xuecong, LI Mei, LIU Yali
Analysis of hot topics and research trends in domestic and foreign patents related to cigars
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 7-17 [Abstract] ( 4 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1224 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 32 ) | Cite this article
ZHOU Di, SUN Yuqi, SHI Hongzhi, YANG Xingyou, ZHOU Jun, LU Ximei, BAI Ruoshi, YANG Weili, ZHAO Yuanyuan, QIN Yanqing
Nicotine conversion rate of 16 cigar varieties and its relationship with TSNAs content in fermented tobacco leaves
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 18-25 [Abstract] ( 8 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1144 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 16 ) | Cite this article
LU Shaohao, ZHANG Jiawen, ZHAO Zhe, ZHONG Qiu, WANG Jun, SONG Zhaopeng, ZOU Yuhang, ZHANG Huashu, ZHAO Mingqin
Effects of air-curing humidity on key enzyme activities related to carbon and nitrogen metabolism and quality of cigar tobacco leaves
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 26-34 [Abstract] ( 4 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1238 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 20 ) | Cite this article
MA Long, YANG Jun, WANG Haijun, WU Junqian, LV Ji, LI Chengran, FAN Dan
Impact of agricultural machinery usage on hired labor——based on the survey data of Shifang cigar tobacco farmers, Sichuan province
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 35-44 [Abstract] ( 3 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1413 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 15 ) | Cite this article
 TOBACCO AND SMOKE CHEMISTRY
YANG Fei, MENG Hongming, CUI Haozhe, FAN Duoqing, WANG Ying, LIU Shanshan, FAN Ziyan, TANG Gangling, ZHAO Wei
Separation and determination of isomers of phosphamidon and mevinphos in tobacco by supercritical fluid chromatography -tandem mass spectrometry
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 45-55 [Abstract] ( 8 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1728 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 10 ) | Cite this article
XU Meiling
Analysis of chemical components and aroma components in different types of air-cured tobacco germplasm resources
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 56-66 [Abstract] ( 11 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1629 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 25 ) | Cite this article
 TOBACCO EQUIPMENT
CHEN Tianli, WANG Kui, LIN Yunfei, GUI Yuan
Design of tear-tape detection device based on displacement sensor technology to C600 cellophane paper packager
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 67-71 [Abstract] ( 7 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1463 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 25 ) | Cite this article
 AGRONOMY AND CURING
LI Ruo, LI Zunqiang, WAN Xiuqing, QIAO Chan, GUO Yushuang, PAN Hongxing, CUI Xiao, CHEN Rongping, GUO Zhaokui
Identification of a PVY virus isolate breaking down va-genotype tobacco resistance
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 72-77 [Abstract] ( 5 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1446 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 9 ) | Cite this article
XIANG Huan, WANG Jun, CHEN Yong, TANG Weirong, ZHANG Fan, LIU Lei
Effects of light on chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant indexes of sun-cured tobacco leaves during yellowing period
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 78-85 [Abstract] ( 1 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1615 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 9 ) | Cite this article
LI Mengzhu, YE Hongchao, WANG Hui, JIA Fangfang, LIU Guoshun
Spectral response of potassium content in flue-cured tobacco leaves under different degree of water stress
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 86-92 [Abstract] ( 1 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1595 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 6 ) | Cite this article
XIANG Ligang, WANG Hancheng, ZHENG Ping, CAI Liuti, YU Zhihe
Analysis of endophytic fungi and phyllosphere fungi of flue cured tobacco leaves with brown spot disease
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 93-100 [Abstract] ( 0 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1808 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 11 ) | Cite this article
LI Yanyan, LI Chunli, WANG Lin, PENG Wuxing, YANG Yong, CHEN Shouwen, LI Xihong
Effects of application method of biocontrol agents on controlling tobacco bacterial wilt and regulating bacterial community of rhizosphere soil
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 101-107 [Abstract] ( 7 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1602 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 18 ) | Cite this article
 ECONOMY AND MANAGEMENT
WANG Cuilan, LI Xiufang, WANG Deji
Technological evolution of domestic cigarette making machines based on big data
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 108-111 [Abstract] ( 13 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (2152 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 43 ) | Cite this article
DENG Peng
Comparison of four statistical calibers on the tobacco consumption per carton containing 50 000 cigarettes
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 112-116 [Abstract] ( 9 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1580 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 45 ) | Cite this article
YE Bin, CHEN Yan, ZHANG Bo, LIANG Qirong, ZHU Lingfei
Research on multi-echelon coordinated inventory control model of tobacco industry enterprises
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 117-123 [Abstract] ( 5 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1610 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 20 ) | Cite this article
 REVIEW
ZHOU Ting, ZHANG Binghui, HUANG Guanghui, GU Gang
Quinclorac's phytotoxicity to tobacco and its treatment: a review
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 124-130 [Abstract] ( 5 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1381 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 22 ) | Cite this article
2020  Vol. 26 No. 4    Published: 28 August 2020
CIGAR COLUMN    TOBACCO AND SMOKE CHEMISTRY    TOBACCO EQUIPMENT    AGRONOMY AND CURING    ECONOMY AND MANAGEMENT    REVIEW   
 CIGAR COLUMN
ZHANG Qianying, LUO Cheng, LI Dongliang, CAI Wen
Research progress in curing and fermentation technology for cigar tobacco leaf production
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 1-6 [Abstract] ( 19 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (859 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 58 ) | Cite this article
Abstract:Curing and fermentation are important production links that determine the quality of cigar tobacco leaves and finished products. Compared with flue-cured tobacco, the curing process of cigar tobacco leaves is more gentle, and microorganisms have a more important role in the formation of the final quality of cigar tobacco leaves. This article summarizes the research progress of cigar tobacco leaf curing and fermentation, and believes that genomics, metabolomics and other technologies should be used to further study the role of microorganisms in cigar tobacco leaf curing and fermentation.
WANG Jinbang, QIU Jiqing, ZHENG Lu, WANG Zhibo, HONG Qunye, ZHANG Shihua, ZHENG Xuecong, LI Mei, LIU Yali
Analysis of hot topics and research trends in domestic and foreign patents related to cigars
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 7-17 [Abstract] ( 4 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1224 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 32 ) | Cite this article
Abstract:[Purpose] This study aims to investigate the status quo and forecast the development trends of cigars. [Methods] In this paper, a total of 657 patents related to cigars published by State Intellectual Property Office and Derwent Innovation from 2009 to 2018 were statistically analyzed. [Results] 1) The geographical concentration of cigar patents is relatively high, mainly distributed in the United States and mainland China, followed by European Union and France, which is more consistent with the current market distribution of cigars. The great majority of cigar patents were applied by the foreign individuals, the other foreign units (relative to tobacco enterprises) and the domestic tobacco industries. Among them, BLUNT WRAP, U.S.A., INC possessed the largest number of application, followed by China Tobacco Sichuan Industrial Limited Corporation, China Tobacco Hubei Industrial Limited Corporation, China Tobacco Chongqing Industrial Limited Corporation, et al. 2) The cigar patents are mainly concentrated in the A24F (smokers' requisites, such as accessory) subclass, followed by B65D (containers for storage or transport of cigars), A24C (machines for making cigars), A24B (manufacture or preparation of cigars) and A24D (structure design for cigars)for invention and utility model patents. For industrial design patents, 27- 06 subclass is the most. In the specific technical field, the patent layout was mostly focused on accessories and industrial design related to cigars. 3) Compared with the foreign applicants, the domestic (including the domestic tobacco industries) have the lower number patents about industrial design. [Conclusion] Considering both the regional characteristics of patent protection and the relatively lower application rate of patents in China for the foreign applicants, The domestic tobacco industries should pay more attention to tracking and researching the overseas patents and actively carrying out overseas patent layout strategies for cigars.
ZHOU Di, SUN Yuqi, SHI Hongzhi, YANG Xingyou, ZHOU Jun, LU Ximei, BAI Ruoshi, YANG Weili, ZHAO Yuanyuan, QIN Yanqing
Nicotine conversion rate of 16 cigar varieties and its relationship with TSNAs content in fermented tobacco leaves
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 18-25 [Abstract] ( 8 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1144 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 16 ) | Cite this article
Abstract:[Objective] This study aims to investigate the difference in nicotine conversion rate among different cigar varieties as well as the relationship between nicotine conversion rate and TSNAs content in cigar tobacco. [Methods] The alkaloids, nitrate and TSNAs contents in the middle leaves of 16 cigar varieties were analyzed. [Results] 1) All cigar varieties had the problem of nicotine to nornicotine conversion at different degrees. The nicotine contents of 16 cigar varieties were in the range of 1.14% to 5.42%, averaging at 3.02%; and nornicotine contents changed in the range from 0.11% to 1.47%, averaging at 0.40%. The nicotine conversion rate ranged from 5.03% to 53.12%, with the average value of 12.66%, and the variation coefficient of nicotine conversion among varieties was as high as 101.01%. 2) The average nornicotine content and nicotine conversion rate of cigar wrapper varieties were significantly higher than those of cigar filler varieties. 3) The content and proportion of TSNAs in tobacco leaves of different cigar tobacco varieties were significantly different. The variation range of total TSNAs content was 181.74~7759.1 ng/g, with an average of 3010.98 ng/g. The content of NNN was the highest, with the average value of 1616.59 ng/g, and the variability was also the highest, with the coefficient of variation as high as 97.28%. 4) Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between nornicotine content and NNN and TSNAs content in 16 cigar tobacco varieties, with the correlation coefficient between NNN and nornicotine content reaching 0.802. [Conclusion] The high level of nornicotine content resulted from nicotine conversion is one of the main cause for the increased formation and accumulation of NNN and total TSNAs in cigar tobacco leaves.
LU Shaohao, ZHANG Jiawen, ZHAO Zhe, ZHONG Qiu, WANG Jun, SONG Zhaopeng, ZOU Yuhang, ZHANG Huashu, ZHAO Mingqin
Effects of air-curing humidity on key enzyme activities related to carbon and nitrogen metabolism and quality of cigar tobacco leaves
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 26-34 [Abstract] ( 4 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1238 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 20 ) | Cite this article
Abstract:In order to regulate the level of carbon and nitrogen metabolism during airing of tobacco leave and improve the quality of cigar tobacco leaves, the changes of water content, chemical composition and the activity of key enzymes related to carbon and nitrogen metabolism in cigar tobacco leaves were studied by using Dexue No.1 as the test material. The results showed that the changes of the chemical composition and the activity of key enzymes related to carbon and nitrogen metabolism in tobacco leaves were basically the same under different air curing humidity. The contents of water, total sugar, reducing sugar, starch, total nitrogen, protein and plastid pigment showed a downward trend, but the contents of amino acid and nicotine increased first and then decreased. The activity of amylase(AL) and neutral invertase(NI) showed a single peak curve, but the time to peak was slightly different. The activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) showed a downward trend. During air curing of cigar tobacco leaves, when the humidity was controlled within the range of 80%-85% in withering period, 75%-80% in yellowing period, 70%-75% in browning period, 65%-70% in fixing color period and 45%-50% in dry gluten period, the activities of AL, NI, NR and GS were the highest, the chemical components were suitable and the overall physical characteristics and quality were good. Therefore, controlling the air curing humidity within a certain range can improve the carbon and nitrogen metabolism of ciar tobacco leaves, promote conversion of tobacco leaf contents, and improve the quality and availability of cigar tobacco leaves.
MA Long, YANG Jun, WANG Haijun, WU Junqian, LV Ji, LI Chengran, FAN Dan
Impact of agricultural machinery usage on hired labor——based on the survey data of Shifang cigar tobacco farmers, Sichuan province
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 35-44 [Abstract] ( 3 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1413 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 15 ) | Cite this article
Abstract:[Background] This study aims to explore the relationship between the agricultural machinery use and the hired labor for cigar tobacco farmers so as to guide the agricultural production of cigars. [Methods] First, the changes in the use of machinery and labor in tobacco planting are reviewed. Then based on the survey data of cigar tobacco farmers in Shifang, Sichuan, the impact of agricultural machinery usage on hired labor is analyzed using the binary logit model and dependent variable restricted Tobit model. [Results] ① In the past 15 years, the rental operation fee, mechanical operation fee and labor cost of the tobacco field have been continuously increased, which confirms the “double dense” characteristics of tobacco planting labor capital. ② Under the cigar planting mode based on small-scale retail households, the use of machinery does not significantly replace the artificial input, but has a significant positive impact on hired labor for cigar planting. ③ Factors such as joining cooperatives, planting scale, family migrant members also have a significant positive impact on hired labor in small-scale cigar grower. However, factors such as planting experience, whether it is the production team leader and the purchase of agricultural insurance have a significant negative impact on hired labor. [Conclusion] Machinery use in cigar planting can significantly increase the probability of hired labor, which is the result of incomplete substitution of artificial labor by machinery in cigar growing and the planting scale expansion. Cigar growers cannot rely solely on the machinery usage to improve production efficiency, but more importantly need to optimize the production organization mode to improve quality and efficiency.
 TOBACCO AND SMOKE CHEMISTRY
YANG Fei, MENG Hongming, CUI Haozhe, FAN Duoqing, WANG Ying, LIU Shanshan, FAN Ziyan, TANG Gangling, ZHAO Wei
Separation and determination of isomers of phosphamidon and mevinphos in tobacco by supercritical fluid chromatography -tandem mass spectrometry
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 45-55 [Abstract] ( 8 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1728 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 10 ) | Cite this article
Abstract:To realize rapid separation and determination of isomers of phosphamidon and mevinphos in tobacco, a analysis method of isomers of phosphamine and phosphorous was established by supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SFC-MS/ MS). Results showed that: ① The isomers of phosphamidon and mevinphos reached baseline separation and the separation time was only 5 minutes. ② Under optimized conditions, the recoveries for all isomers were within the range of 84.7%-96.7%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 5.0% at 0.01, 0.05 and 0.2 mg/kg levels. The LOD for all isomers in tobacco varied from 0.6 μg/kg to 1.7 μg/kg and the LOQ varied from 2.0 μg/kg to 5.5 μg/kg. ③ Twenty tobacco samples were tested with this method and no isomers were detected in all samples. The results confirm that the proposed method is environmentally friendly, convenient and reliable for the selective determination of the isomers of phosphamidon and mevinphos in tobacco.
XU Meiling
Analysis of chemical components and aroma components in different types of air-cured tobacco germplasm resources
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 56-66 [Abstract] ( 11 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1629 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 25 ) | Cite this article
Abstract:[Objective] This study aims to screen out high-quality air-cured tobacco materials.[Methods] 35 air-cured tobacco germplasms were planted in Yanhe Town, Yuxi City, Yunnan Province. After air curing, middle leaves collected selected as research objects to study routine chemical components as well as contents of polyphenol, petroleum ether extracts, polyacid polybasic, higher fatty acid, and some aroma components using correlation analysis and cluster analysis.[Results] The content ranges of basic components (and the highest value type) were nitrogen 1.62% to 3.44% (air-cured), nicotine 2.30% to 9.76% (air-cured), potassium 0.73% to 3.42% (Nicotiana rustica L), polyphenol 1.51% to 6.43% (air-cured), petroleum ether extracts 2.66%~8.94% (cigar), and oxalic acid 7.09 to 50.21mg/g (aircured), malic acid 41.97 to 173.39mg/g (Nicotiana rustica L), and citric acid 16.02 to 126.45mg/g (Nicotiana rustica L), etc. The 35 aircured tobacco germplasms can be grouped into five categories:including type I, the Nicotiana rustica L, characterized by high potassium content, high malic acid and high citric acid, and with low sugar, polyphenol, petroleum ether extracts, oxalic acid and malonic acid; Type II, including the germplasm of Maryland tobacco, air-cured and cigar, characterized by high petroleum ether extracts, higher malic acid and citric acid; Type III, the air-cured tobacco germplasms, characterized by high polyphenol; Type IV characterized by high nitrogen and nicotine, higher oxalic acid; Type V characterized by high with total sugar, return sugar and starch, with high two sugar difference, sugaralkali ratio, nitrogen-base ratio, and low with malic acid, citric acid.
 TOBACCO EQUIPMENT
CHEN Tianli, WANG Kui, LIN Yunfei, GUI Yuan
Design of tear-tape detection device based on displacement sensor technology to C600 cellophane paper packager
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 67-71 [Abstract] ( 7 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1463 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 25 ) | Cite this article
Abstract:[Objective] Aiming at the low accuracy in identifying small box tear-tape by imaging-type tear-tape detection device, a tear-tape detection device based on displacement sensor technology is designed in this study. [Methods] The device uses a displacement sensor to detect the thickness of the tear-tape, and displays the thickness of the tear-tape in a digital form to judge and deal with defects such as broken tear-tape, offset, folding, etc., so as to reject unqualified cigarette packets. [Results] The test was carried out with simulated tear-tape defects in Wuhan cigarette factory. The results showed that the displacement-type tear-tape detection device of C600 packaging machine can realize 100% accuracy in detecting tear-tape defects of cigarette packet. In contrast, the imaging-type tear-tape detection device recognizes only partial packet tear-tape defects, of which the detection accuracy for tear-tape deviation (2 mm) is 37.5%, and the detection accuracy rate for the teartape folding is 0%. [Conclusion] The detection accuracy of the displacement-type detection accuracy detection device is significantly higher than that of the imaging-type detection accuracy detection device.
 AGRONOMY AND CURING
LI Ruo, LI Zunqiang, WAN Xiuqing, QIAO Chan, GUO Yushuang, PAN Hongxing, CUI Xiao, CHEN Rongping, GUO Zhaokui
Identification of a PVY virus isolate breaking down va-genotype tobacco resistance
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 72-77 [Abstract] ( 5 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1446 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 9 ) | Cite this article
Abstract:[Background] Recently, the Potato virus Y (PVY) strains breaking down the resistance of va-genotype tobacco varieties have emerged on cultivated tobacco constantly. In 2016, we isolated a va-resistance breaking-down PVY strain, which was named as PVYCJ. This isolate was verified and identified in this study. [Methods] Re-inoculation on the va-genotype tobacco varieties, multiple RTPCR, segmented amplification of the whole PVY genome by RT-PCR, molecular phylogenetic analysis and the sequence alignment of VPg protein of PVY strains were adopted to confirm and identify PVY-CJ strain. [Results] Test data showed: 1) All the 3 va-genotype tobacco varieties showed symptoms of infection when they were inoculated with PVY-CJ inoculum; 2) PVY-CJ was classified as PVYNTN strain according to the result of multiple RT-PCR; 3) Sequence analysis showed that the whole genome of PVY-CJ contained an open reading frame of 9180 nt encoding a polyprotein of 3060 amino acids; 4) the result of molecular phylogenetic analysis further classified PVY-CJ as PVYNTN strain; 5) Compared with other PVYNTN strains, a substitution of lysine to glutamic acid happened at 105 amino acid of VPg protein of PVY-CJ, which led to a breaking down of va-geno source resistance. [Conclusion] We reported and identified a PVY strain which could break down the resistance of va-genotype tobacco varieties in the mainland of China for the first time. This study provides material for breeding new PVY-resistant tobacco varieties.
XIANG Huan, WANG Jun, CHEN Yong, TANG Weirong, ZHANG Fan, LIU Lei
Effects of light on chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant indexes of sun-cured tobacco leaves during yellowing period
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 78-85 [Abstract] ( 1 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1615 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 9 ) | Cite this article
Abstract:This study aims to reveal the effects of light on chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant indexes of sun-cured tobacco leaves in yellowing period of curing. Tobacco samples under the light treatment and shading treatment (CK) were collected dynamically during yellowing period. Indexes of chlorophyll fluorescence, activities of antioxidant enzymes and contents of chlorophyll, H2O2 and MDA were measured. The results showed: 1) The degradation rate of chlorophyll under light treatment was faster than that under CK. 2) Photochemical efficiency of PS Ⅱ (PhiPS2) and electron transfer rate (ETR) decreased by 60% and 75% respectively in the first 4 days under light treatment, which was significantly greater than that under CK. On the 7th day, photochemical quenching (qP) value and the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) value decreased to 0.28 and 0.23, which were lower than that under CK by 38% and 43%, respectively. 3) The peak values of H2O2 and MDA contents under light treatment were 1.5 times of that under CK, and appeared 2 days earlier compared with the situation under CK. The peak values of POD and CAT activities in light treatment were also higher than that under CK. 4) Of all tested indexes, PhiPS2, MDA and H2O2 were the most affected by light treatment. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that light energy utilization efficiency of sun-cured tobacco leaves decreased rapidly in the early stage of yellowing. Part of the light energy received by tobacco leaves was converted into excess light excitation-energy, which could proliferate reactive oxygen species, aggravate oxidative stress, accelerate the degradation and transformation of chlorophyll, membrane lipid and other chemical substances in tobacco leaves and damage cell structure and function.
LI Mengzhu, YE Hongchao, WANG Hui, JIA Fangfang, LIU Guoshun
Spectral response of potassium content in flue-cured tobacco leaves under different degree of water stress
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 86-92 [Abstract] ( 1 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1595 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 6 ) | Cite this article
Abstract:[Objective] This study aims to realize accurate, rapid and nondestructive monitoring of the potassium nutrition level of flue-cured tobacco leaves. [Methods] The experiment of different degree of drought and waterlogging stress was designed. K326 and zhongyan100 were used as the test varieties to explore the change rule of potassium content and spectral information of flue-cured tobacco leaves under different degree of water stress. By screening the sensitive spectral characteristic variables and spectral parameters of potassium content of flue-cured tobacco leaves, the prediction model of potassium content in tobacco leaves was constructed. [Results] (1) With the aggravation of water stress, the K content and spectral reflectance of flue-cured tobacco leaves showed an increasing trend at the root extension stage, and a decreasing trend at the vigorous growth and mature stages. (2) The BP neural network model based on the eight best sensitive spectral indexes (msr705, SDR, DVI, msavi2, λ g, Dr, NDSI (2275, 1875), rdvi) had the best effect, R2 (decision coefficient) was 0.9336, RMSE (root mean square error) was 0.1348. [Conclusion] The BP neural network model of potassium content in flue-cured tobacco can be constructed by using spectral parameters and such constructed model is more stable and accurate. This study provides technical support for real-time and accurate monitoring of potassium content in flue-cured tobacco leaves and timely understanding of soil moisture environment.
XIANG Ligang, WANG Hancheng, ZHENG Ping, CAI Liuti, YU Zhihe
Analysis of endophytic fungi and phyllosphere fungi of flue cured tobacco leaves with brown spot disease
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 93-100 [Abstract] ( 0 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1808 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 11 ) | Cite this article
Abstract:Flue-cured tobacco brown spot disease is a main fungal disease in the ripening stage of tobacco leaves caused by Alternaria alternata, which can cause huge economic loss in the field period and baking period. Endophytic and phyllosphere fungi are closely related to the happening of such disease. In this study, the PCR technology was used to amplify ITS1 region of all the fungal transcribed spacer regions of the flue-cured leaves of healthy and diseased plants, and then the leaf fungal community structure and diversity were analyzed using Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing technology. The result showed that Alternaria was dominant genus in all diseased tobacco leaves, and the relative abundance of Alternaria in each sample was more than 70%. Rhodotorula was second dominant genus in all diseased tobacco leaves, and the relative abundance in each sample was more than 10%. The relative abundances of other genera of fungi were less than 1% in all diseased leaves. For healthy tobacco leaves, Alternaria and Rhodotorula were the dominant genera, the sum of relative abundances of the two was smaller than that in diseased tobacco leaves. In addition to the above two species, the relative abundance of Aspergillus, Wallemia and Unclassified_o_Pleosporales, etc., were also greater than 1%. The results of alpha diversity analysis showed that the richness and diversity index of the fungal community in the diseased leaves were lower than that in the healthy leaves. Alternaria and Rhodotorula were the dominant genera in both healthy and diseased flue-cured tobacco leaves.
LI Yanyan, LI Chunli, WANG Lin, PENG Wuxing, YANG Yong, CHEN Shouwen, LI Xihong
Effects of application method of biocontrol agents on controlling tobacco bacterial wilt and regulating bacterial community of rhizosphere soil
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 101-107 [Abstract] ( 7 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1602 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 18 ) | Cite this article
Abstract:The effects of three application methods of biocontrol agents on controlling tobacco bacterial wilt and regulating bacterial community of rhizosphere soil were explored by field experiment and amplicon sequencing techniques. The three methods were dilute biocontrol agents with water and then irrigate into tobacco root (GG), mix biocontrol agents with soil and then apply around tobacco root (WG), ferment biocontrol agents with rice bran and then apply the mixture around tobacco root (MK+WG). The results indicated that: (1) The efficiency of MK+WG, WG and GG on controlling tobacco bacterial wilt was 59.32%, 55.93% and 49.72%, respectively. (2) The richness and diversity of soil bacterial communities were significantly increased by WG and MK+WG, where MK+WG exhibited the higher richness and diversity of soil bacterial communities. (3) In WG and MK+WG, the relative abundance of some beneficial bacterial phyla (Actinobacteria) and some beneficial bacterial genera (Gaiella, Gemmatimonas and Bradyrhizobium) were significantly increased. To sum up, MK+WG is strongly conducive to restoring soil health and reducing the damage of bacterial wilt to tobacco.
 ECONOMY AND MANAGEMENT
WANG Cuilan, LI Xiufang, WANG Deji
Technological evolution of domestic cigarette making machines based on big data
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 108-111 [Abstract] ( 13 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (2152 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 43 ) | Cite this article
Abstract:In order to study the development trend of domestic cigarette making machines, the patents on the cigarette making machines from 1965 to 2019 are analyzed in this paper based on big data using the web of CNKI and China Patent Information Network as data source. The results show that: 1) The main research institutions for cigarette making equipment are Changde Tobacco Machinery Co., Ltd., Henan China Tobacco Industry Co., Ltd., Xuchang Tobacco Machinery Co., Ltd., etc. The main scientific researchers are Li Yongwei, Luo Dehan, Zhou Mi, Sun Bin, Pan Hengle, Wu Zhiqiang, Wu Di, Liao Youhui, Jiang Wenfeng. 2) The main research hotspots are control systems and data acquisition systems. 3) The main development trend is to continuously improve reliability, speed and intelligence.
DENG Peng
Comparison of four statistical calibers on the tobacco consumption per carton containing 50 000 cigarettes
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 112-116 [Abstract] ( 9 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1580 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 45 ) | Cite this article
Abstract:In order to improve the systematicness and precision of the cost control of cigarette raw material consumption, this paper introduces the two factors of "cigarette specification" and "production ratio" based on the cost analysis algorithm of " tobacco consumption per carton containing 50,000 cigarettes" index. Therefore, four statistical caliber models of tobacco consumption per carton are constructed from the perspective of cost, benchmarking, synthesis and comparability. Using this model is convenient for multi-dimensional analysis and comprehensive impact analysis, which can provide a reference for cigarette companies to reduce costs and increase efficiency.
YE Bin, CHEN Yan, ZHANG Bo, LIANG Qirong, ZHU Lingfei
Research on multi-echelon coordinated inventory control model of tobacco industry enterprises
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 117-123 [Abstract] ( 5 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1610 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 20 ) | Cite this article
Abstract:In order to realize the efficient utilization of pallet warehouse storage capacity of industrial enterprises and the efficient operation of the dispatch warehouses, and to reduce the cost of warehouse shifting, the cigarettes in the delivery warehouse are divided into three categories using ABC classification method and assigned with different internal stock-sales ratios. According to the stock-sales ratio, daily shipping demand and storage capacity, three different demands for dispatch are identified and subdivided, and several different strategies for dispatch are generated. An internal inventory control model based on the three-level storage system of pallet warehouse, transfer warehouse and delivery warehouse is established. The empirical results showed that: (1) the utilization ratio of pallet warehouse capacity increased from 75.2% to 82.3%, (2) Inventory turnover increased from 20.12 times per year to 22.24 times per year, (3) the unit cost of warehouse shifting decreased from 3.75 yuan per unit to 3.31 yuan per unit. The proposed model is proved to be effective in internal inventory control of industrial enterprises.
 REVIEW
ZHOU Ting, ZHANG Binghui, HUANG Guanghui, GU Gang
Quinclorac's phytotoxicity to tobacco and its treatment: a review
2020 Vol. 26 (4): 124-130 [Abstract] ( 5 ) HTML (0 KB)  PDF-CHN (1381 KB)  PDF-ENG  (0 KB)  ( 22 ) | Cite this article
Abstract:The phytotoxicity of quinclorac is a common disease of tobacco in the tobacco–rice rotation area, which frequently causes a large loss of flue-cured tobacco production. In this paper, the phytotoxicity of quinclorac to flue-cured tobacco, the degradation of quinclorac in field and the management of quinclorac phytotoxicity were reviewed. Problems of present control techniques were discussed and corresponding countermeasures and thoughts were put forward.
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