Abstract Compaction position is the characteristic index of machining precision. The compaction position bias often affects the tobacco distribution and the cigarette quality. This paper carries out the compaction position bias gradient test and explores the effect of compaction position on cigarette physical indexes, smoke bears, and mainstream flue gas. Results showed that:(1) The compaction position bias led to the difference in the resistance, hardness, sensory quality, puff number, and tar amount of the inside and outside cigarette outlets, and such difference became increasingly significant with the increase of the compaction position bias. In particular, the difference was more significant after the position shift reached 3 mm. (2) The compaction position bias also led to an increase in the number of cigarettes with loose ends, and the number of cigarettes with decreased compaction ends reducing was larger than the number of cigarettes with increased compaction ends. (3) With the movement of the compaction position, the weight of the inside and outside cigarette with single compaction also differed, so there was a greater difference in the quality of the inside and outside cigarette with the single compaction than that with the double compaction. In order to improve the consistency of quality of the inside and outside cigarette, it was advisable to use a six-slot leveler, with the compaction position bias less than 3mm.